CAIRO (AFP) - Egypt's Islamist president, Mohamed Morsi, overreached by giving himself broad powers and trying to ram through a new constitution without sufficient consultation, analysts say.

His abrupt annulment on the weekend of a November decree putting himself above judicial review -- after weeks of sometimes bloody protests at his perceived "power grab" -- was reluctant recognition of that.

But even then, it came only after the army stepped in to demand negotiations to solve the country's dire crisis.

And Morsi's referendum on the draft constitution is still scheduled for next Saturday, leaving open the prospect of further upheaval and division.

Wayne White, a former senior US State Department intelligence official now a policy expert with Washington's Middle East Policy Council, said the involvement of the powerful military was key to Morsi's concession.

Perception that opposition had grown to Morsi's rule likely pushed the generals to "inform him that they cannot continue to keep the peace and that he should make serious concessions to the opposition," he said.

A demand by the army on Saturday for Morsi and the opposition to open dialogue to avert a "disastrous" worsening of the crisis -- which the military said it "will not allow" -- was a warning to both sides, observers said.

It was addressed "as much to the Muslim Brotherhood as to the liberals (the opposition)," Hassan Nafaa, an Egyptian political watcher and columnist, told AFP.

Analysts agreed that Morsi, elected with a slim mandate in June, would probably see the referendum adopt the constitution drafted mostly by his Islamist allies, in no small part thanks to his Muslim Brotherhood.

But they warned the effects of that would be damaging.

"The Muslim Brotherhood believes that it has majority support so it can win the constitutional referendum," said Eric Trager, an analyst at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

If that occurred, it would "set up the country for prolonged instability," he warned.

Morsi, still inexperienced in power, saw himself and the Brotherhood as the sole best defenders of Egypt's fledgling democracy post-Hosni Mubarak, Egypt's strongman for 30 years who was toppled early last year, according to analysts.

"Morsi's miscalculation... was to think that everyone understood the results of the Egyptian elections the way the Brothers did," Steven Cook wrote in the Foreign Affairs magazine published by the American Council on Foreign Relations.

"In other words, that they gave him and his party a mandate to rule with little regard to those who might disagree."

But Yasser El-Shimy, an Egypt-based analyst for the International Crisis Group, judged that the Brotherhood's trench mentality stemmed from "all the attacks against it" -- both in the media and physically -- against its members and offices.

Morsi saw an initial outreach to the opposition spurned, so felt he was right in trying to bulldoze ahead, Shimy said.

Circumstances forced the last-minute concessions, but "whether they will be enough for hardline opposition figures remains to be seen."

The anti-Morsi mood in Cairo's streets in recent days has swung close to the revolutionary zeal seen during Mubarak's ouster in early 2011.

Bringing both camps back to a democratic forum, with its inevitable compromises and horse-trading, requires overcoming ideological stands and a mutual mistrust that has been hardened by the weeks of confrontation.

Shadi Hamid of the Brookings Doha Centre said in a paper on the Brookings Institute website that the crisis "isn't really about Morsi and his surprise decree" but rather about a more fundamental difference: should Egypt become more Islamist or maintain secular, more neutral underpinnings?"

"The (draft) constitution has a few Islamically flavoured articles, but for the most part it is a mediocre -- and somewhat boring -- document, based as it was on the similarly mediocre 1971 constitution," Hamid said.

"'Islamists' and 'non-Islamists' may hate each other, but, on substance, the gap isn't currently as large as it might be ... In the longer run, however, the consensus that so many seem to be searching and hoping for may not actually exist."

By Marc Burleigh

Chairman for the Electoral Commission, Dr kwadwo Afari on Sunday evening declared Ghana.s sitting president John Dramani Mahama as the winner of the 2012 presidential elections.

President John Mahama who ran on the ticket of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) polled 5,574,761 representing 50.70% to win the polls held on Friday and Saturday.

The presidential candidate of the New Patriotic Party (NPP), Akufo-Addo had 5,248,898 of the valid votes cast, representing 47.74%.

Out of the total 14,158,890 registered voters, 11,246,982 people exercised their franchise which 10,995,262 of them were deemed valid. The total rejected votes stood at 251,720. The turnout in the 275 constituencies is 79.43%

The flag-bearer of the Progressive People.s Party (PPP), Dr Papa Kwesi Nduom placed third in the elections with 64,362 votes representing 0.59.

On October 5, four University of Port Harcourt students, Chiadika Biringa, Ugonna Obuzor, Lloyd Toku, and Tekena Elkanah left campus for the village of Aluu. According to Biringa's mother Chinwe, Obuzor was owed some money and he asked his three classmates to accompany him to the village to collect on the debt.
Within minutes of their arrival, a rumor spread that the students were not there to collect but to steal. An enraged mob stripped them naked while beating them with sticks and rocks then wrapped car tires around their necks -- a form of torture known as "necklacing." As the four men sat on the muddy ground dazed and pleading for their lives, someone doused them with gasoline, lit a match and set them on fire.

The killing of the "Aluu four" was filmed and posted on the web for the world to see and now serves as a stark reminder of what can happen when the rule of law fails and communities turn to vigilante groups to carry out summary executions of criminal suspects, said Eric Guttschuss, Nigeria researcher at Human Rights Watch.
"Vigilante justice and mob justice generally takes place when there is a culture of impunity for crimes and in Nigeria, the Nigerian authorities have failed to crack down on this culture of impunity," Guttschuss told CNN.
Mob justice is not unique to Nigeria and it would be unfair to characterize it as such.
One infamous lynching in particular shocked the world and helped to spark the civil rights movement in the United States. In August 1955, 14-year-old Emmett Till was beaten, his eyes gouged and shot in the head. His body was then thrown in the Tallahatchie River with a 70-pound cotton gin tied around his neck with barbed wire. His crime? Allegedly whistling at a white woman.
Till's mother insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket showing the horribly mutilated and bloated body of her child so that the world would see the brutality of the lynching. Chiadika Biringa's mother felt the same way when CNN approached her to talk about her son's killing.
"I want the world to know how our security failed us. I want the world to know that my son and his three friends are innocent of what they said they did," Biringa said.
According to news reports, the village of Aluu was on edge after several incidences of armed robbery -- and in a country where critics say corrupt police are sometimes considered more dangerous than criminals, mob justice is how many disputes ranging from pick-pocketing to kidnapping are often resolved.
But Chinewe Biringa says her son and his friends were just innocent kids. "He was a very kind hearted boy and we (were) so close," she said. "If my son sees you 100 times he will greet you 110 times."
Biringa says the boys also had promising futures in music. They had already recorded a song together called "Ain't No Love in the City" -- a title she now says seems eerily like a premonition of what came to pass.
"It's almost as if they knew they were going to die," Biringa said.

Biringa and her husband, Steven, an oil executive at Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), says that he watched the video because he wouldn't have believed it if he hadn't seen his son's killing with his own eyes.
"I want them to know from beginning to end the barbaric nature with which they chose hunt them down," he said. "Even your worse enemy should not be treated in such form in the 21st century that people are still behaving and killing human beings as if they were rats."
The Nigerian police have arrested 13 people and, shockingly, one police officer who was on the scene and may have encouraged and even participated in the killing. While that officer is awaiting trial, the Nigerian police force has denied broader charges of rampant corruption and abuse.
Spokesman Frank Mba says while Nigeria's police is not perfect, the police "are committed to improving our competency through training and retraining and to improve our service, deliver to protect law and order and to stabilize democracy in Africa's largest country."
Guttschuss says it is not enough. He told CNN: "Generally if you are the victim of a crime and you go to the police, you are asked to fund the criminal investigation. If you don't have the money to fund it and meet the incessant bribe to the police the case is often dropped. On the other hand, the criminal suspect, if he or she has the financial means, can simply pay off the police."
This is why these extrajudicial executions are still all too common across Nigeria. It is impossible to find official statistics, but a quick search of the words in YouTube pulls up dozens of clips showing what happens to someone accused of crime when a mob sets themselves up as judge and jury.
This incident however, has seemingly galvanized the public. There are petitions and websites springing up to raise awareness of the issue and to pressure government and police officials. But many also say there are already laws against assault and murder which, when it comes down to it, is what mob justice is all about. For things to change, they say, the culture has to change.
Chinwe Biringa believes her son is now a martyr, and hopes that his lynching will lead to change -- much in the way that Emmett Till's killing did.
"If justice is done, then I will be happy," she said. "Because I know my son died a hero. He paid the price for Nigerian students in generations to come."

The Zimbabwe Football Association (Zifa) has named German Klaus Deiter Pagels as interim national team coach.

The move is part of Zifa's rebuilding process begins after the Warriors' failure to qualify for the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations finals.
Pagels has been Zifa's national technical adviser since 2010 on a government-to-government agreement.
His main task is to find a Zimbabwean assistant coach, who he can groom to take over permanently next year.
Zifa disbanded the Warriors squad after losing on away goals to Angola in a Nations Cup final-round qualifier in October, and coach Rahman Gumbo resigned last week.
Pagels, who has coached in the German third division, says that he will look at building a team with young talent, and that he will have a bias towards those playing in the domestic league.
"I've seen so many talented young players here and I will want to bring in more players from the domestic league into the national team in a short time," Pagels told BBC Sport.
"The reason that I said I can take the job is because I'm not afraid of anything, and from my experience I've seen so many things in football, good things and bad things, and it's not a problem for me to handle it."
Pagels is the third German to take charge of the Zimbabwe national team, after Rudi Gutendorf and the late Reinhard Fabisch, who was one of the most popular Warriors coaches, having taken the team to within one game of qualifying for the for 1994 World Cup finals.
Zimbabwe's next competitive matches will be two 2014 World Cup qualifiers against Egypt next year, with the Warriors already struggling with one point from two games.


The mother of Nigeria's finance minister was kidnapped Sunday, sparking a "massive manhunt" for her captors, officials said.

Kamene Okonjo, an academic in Nigeria and the mother of Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, was abducted from her home in Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State, a Finance Ministry statement said.
"At this point, it is difficult to say whether those behind this action are the same people who have made threats against the ... minister in the recent past or other elements with hostile motives," the statement said.
Police spokesman Frank Mba told CNN that "the (Inspector General of Police) has ordered a massive manhunt for the perpetrators of the crime."
"He directed the police operatives to ensure that no stone is left unturned in efforts at solving the crime, rescuing the victim and reuniting her safely with her family," Mba said.
Okonjo-Iweala lost her bid in April to become the next president of the World Bank -- the first ever challenge to the U.S. nominee in the institution's history.



In a breakthrough, four teenage schoolgirls in Nigeria have invented a 'pee-powered' generator that converts one litre of urine into six hours of electricity.

Fourteen-year-olds Duro-Aina Adebola, Akindele Abiola, Faleke Oluwatoyin, and 15-year-old Bello Eniola presented their invention at the Maker Faire Africa entrepreneurs event, in Lagos, using a resource that is free, unlimited and easily obtainable.
According to the Maker Faire blog, urine is put into an electrolytic cell, which cracks the urea into nitrogen, water, and hydrogen.
The hydrogen goes into a water filter for purification, which then gets pushed into the gas cylinder, international news agency reported.
The gas cylinder pushes hydrogen into a cylinder of liquid borax, which is used to remove the moisture from the hydrogen gas.
This purified hydrogen gas is pushed into the generator, and one litre of urine provides six hours of electricity.
Maker Faire blog described the generator as "possibly one of the more unexpected products" at the event.
While the system does have one-way valves for safety, more robust measures may be needed before it can be sold widely.
The report noted: "Let's be honest that this is something of an explosive device".
Nigeria's economy is on the rise, however, more than half of the country's 162 million citizens have no access to electricity, and even those who do can't guarantee having power every day, the report said.



Rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo have begun to  withdraw from the key city of Goma under a regionally brokered agreement. The M23 rebels were seen boarding trucks and heading out of the city, 12 days after seizing it from government troops backed by UN peacekeepers.

The deal calls for the rebels to withdraw towards the town of Kibumba The M23 rebels deserted from the army in April, with some 500,000 people fleeing their homes in ensuing unrest.

Who are the M23 rebels?                     

Named after the 23 March 2009 peace accord which they accuse the government of violating

This deal saw them join the army before they took up arms once more in April 2012

Also known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army

Mostly from minority Tutsi ethnic group

Deny being backed by Rwanda and Uganda

Believed to have 1,200 to  6,000 fighters

International Criminal Court indicted top commander Bosco "Terminator" Ntaganda in 2006 for  allegedly recruiting child soldiers.

The UN and US imposed a travel ban and asset freeze earlier this month on the group's leader, Sultani Makenga.

The UK has suspended aid to Rwanda, amid concerns about the country's role in the conflict.

Both Rwanda and neighbouring Uganda strongly deny UN accusations that they are backing the M23.

Humanitarian crisis:

Reports on Saturday spoke of a number of flat-bed trucks carrying several hundred rebels out of Goma.

Some 1,500 M23 fighters were reported to have occupied the city.

M23 deputy spokesman Amani Kabasha told Reuters: "The M23 is leaving Goma."

According to the withdrawal accord, mediated by Uganda, the rebels are to pull back to a 20km (13 mile) buffer zone around Goma.

The accord had stipulated that the M23 would leave behind 100 soldiers to guard the airport in conjunction with a UN contingent and a government unit.

However, Sy Koumbo, a spokesman for the UN in Congo, told Associated Press that the rebels had tried but failed to force their way into the airport to seize weapons on Friday.

The rebels said recovering the materiel was part of the withdrawal process.

More than 270 Congolese policemen have arrived in Goma's port as part of the transition.

The UN has warned of a growing humanitarian crisis in the region because of the recent fighting.

Goma is the key city in an eastern border area that has seen years of conflict sparked by ethnic and political differences, and grievances over mineral resources.

Some five million people died during the 1997-2003 DR Congo conflict, which drew in several regional countries, including both Rwanda and Uganda.


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